1,100,000,000 B. C.
A shallow ocean deposits sediments that become Lake George bedrock.
520,000,000 B. C.
Shallow sea water at the western edge of the Iapetus sea lays down sandstone along the proto-Hudson River in the Ausable Chasm and Troy, New York, areas.
460,000,000 B. C.
The approach of the African continent causes the thrusting up of the Vermontia land mass, a period known as the Taconic Orogeny or the Greenville event. The Taconics, Berkshires, Adirondacks, Blue Ridge, and Green Mountains are created as a result.
450,000,000 B. C.
Pushed westward into New York, New England bedrock creates the Rensselaer Plateau.
The central part of the land mass lies in the tropics. Today's east coast faces south and a chain of volcanic islands begins colliding with the coast. They will be submerged and compressed to become the bedrock beneath Long Island.
430,000,000 B. C.
The Taconic Orogeny period draws to a close.
420,000,000 B. C.
The Niagara Escarpment is formed.
400,000,000 B. C (Late Silurian)
The Salina Group of shale and dolostone, containing thick deposits of salt and gypsum, is laid down
200,000,000 B. C.
Part of the ocean bottom is uplifted to form New York's Finger Lake region.
100,000,000 B. C.
A second uplift in the New York region forms the valleys of the Cayuga and Seneca rivers.
60,000,000 B. C.
The Magothy aquifer, the third layer from the bottom of gravel, sand and silt beneath Long Island, is laid down by glacial action.
30,000,000 B. C.
The Jurassic Period. The Palisades are formed.
2,000,000 B. C.
The Kansan glaciation period begins in North America, lasts for about a million years. The ice begins advancing down the Champlain-Hudson valley.
25,000 B. C.
The Manhattan area is inundated by the sea.
22,000 B. C.
The last glacier, the Laurentide, reaches Long Island.
20,000 B. C.
North America's most recent glaciers begin retreating. At their zenith the northern half of Long Island is covered. ** The Allegheny River's bed is formed at the glacier's edge.
18,000 B. C.
The glacier begins receding from the Allegheny River. ** Glacial Lake Albany is formed by retreating glaciers.
17,500 B. C.
The retreating glacier leaves a long lake (Glacial Lake Connecticut) behind - the future Long Island Sound.
16,000 B. C.
A global warming trend begins. The glacier recedes in the southern tier to the Angelica area and remains stationary, depositing the Angelica Morraine and impounding Lake Wellsville. The lake extends southward for 13 miles, draining by way of Honeoye and Oswayo creeks into the Allegheny River.
14,000 B. C.
The lake at the site of today's Long Island Sound dries up after the glacial ice sheet recedes.
13,500 B. C.
The glacier at Angelica begins receding, depositing a moraine, exposing Black Creek Valley and lowering Lake Wellsville 80 feet to form Lake Belfast-Fillmore.
13,000 B. C.
Niagara Falls is created as the glaciers retreat north and Lake Tonawanda's waters pool up at its western end. ** Rising seas begin breaking into the lengthy depression in the earth that will become Long Island Sound. ** Paleo-Indian peoples begin arriving in the New York area and in the sandstone Meadowcroft Rockshelter, near today's Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
12,000 B. C.
The Genesee Valley glacier ice recedes to the Portageville area.
11,000 B. C.
Glacial Lake Albany dries out.
10,000 B. C.
Long Island becomes an island when waters break through on the western end to the interior lake. ** Nomadic hunters from the north begin entering the Long Island area. ** The approximate date the Wisconsinian glacier retreats from the central part of the state.
9,070 B. C.
A mastodon dies in the Cohoes area.
9,000 B. C.
The first humans, PaleoIndians, arrive in the Genesee Valley.
6,300 B. C.
The approximate date man re-appears in the area.
6,000 B. C.
Deciduous plants make their appearance on Long Island.
4,500 B. C.
Cedar trees are traced back to this period at Montauk, Long Island.
New York City
A second wave of humans inhabit the area.
4,000 B. C.
The use of pottery is widespread through the North America continent by this time. ** The Algonquin Indians migrate from Asia.
3,500 B. C.
The approximate date the Laurentian Algonquins enter the state. The Lamoka subculture also begins forming around this time.
3,000 B. C.
The approximate date Indians, of the Algonquin tribes, begin spreading out across Long Island.
2,200 B. C.
Cedar trees grow on Long Island at Mashomack.
2,000 B. C.
The rate of the rise of sea level begins to slow. Marshes develop along the shores of Long Island.
1,100 A. D.
The approximate date of Indian settlements in the Brooklyn area.
1,000 A. D.
The approximate date Long Island's aquifer system begins to form.
© 2005 David Minor / Eagles Byte