Some people in New York City freeze to death for want of firewood.
A record five-week cold spell bottoms out at -20° at Hartford, Connecticut, and 16° in New York City. New York's harbor is frozen over.
New York State cedes all of its western lands to Congress.
Surveyor William Peacock is born near New York City.
A spy named Huddlestone is hanged at Poughkeepsie by U. S. forces.
Captain Alexander Harper, leading a 14-man force (including brothers Freegift and Isaac Patchin, Ezra Thorp and lieutenant Henry Thorp) from the Schoharie region, arrives near the head of the Delaware in search of Loyalists and to make maple syrup. A snow storm dumps three feet on them.
Loyalist John Cumming and his family arrive in New York City from the northern part of the colony, to take ship for Scotland. ** Stores in the Chatham area are reported to be about out of supplies. Continental currency is depleted.
Sir Henry Clinton and Major André return to New York, leaving General Cornwallis in charge of the southern campaign.
A new tavern opens near the Tea Water Pump, north of the eastern outlet of the Fresh Water (Collect) Pond.
General George Washington gives Benedict Arnold the command at West Point.
Minister to Spain John Jay writes to New Yorker Egbert Benson, calls citizens, seeking liberty while denying it to blacks, impious.
Major John Andre and Benedict Arnold meet at Haverstraw and plot the betrayal of West Point to the British.
André is captured by three irregulars in Tarrytown, revealing Arnold's plot.
Arnold narrowly escapes capture, on the British ship Vulture.
Major André is hanged by the rebels as a spy on Garret Smith's farm near Tappan. Avon, New York, physician Timothy Hosmer pronounces André dead.
Future New York City mayor Philip Hone is born on Dutch Street.
James Whitelaw writes to his sponsor, the Scots American Company of Farmers recommending they liquidate their holdings in Ryegate, Vermont. ** William Coon is chosen preacher of the Seventh Day Baptist Church in North Berlin; it's the first church in the Rennselaer County Town of Berlin.
Alexander Hamilton marries Elizabeth Schuyler in Albany.
A two-month spring drought affects the city. ** The city council calls for the dumping of all garbage into Beekman's Swamp, on the east side, north of today's Fulton Street.
George Washington's Newburgh headquarters, the Jonathan Hasbrouck House, is demolished. ** British forces under Sir John Johnson and Joseph Brant attack the settlement at Schoharie, are beaten off. ** Indians settle in the area of the future Buffalo. ** The Council House at Caneadea is built by British troops from Fort Niagara for the Seneca. ** Joseph Brant and his prisoner Captain Alexander Harper pass through the Genesee Valley on their way from Schoharie to Niagara. ** Connewango pioneer Rufus Wyllys is born in Massachusetts. ** Moses Hale, MD, first Secretary of the Renssalaer School, is born. ** The legislature agrees to set aside bounty lands for veterans. ** Ship's captain William Henry Stewart is born in Inverness, Scotland. ** Indians attack the Van Campen farm in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, kill the father and younger son. They capture the older brother Moses along with two other white men and carry them all off to the Genesee Valley. ** The Washington County Town of Hebron gets its first church, an Associated Reformed Presbyterian, with the Reverend Dr. Gray as pastor. ** A second Militia Act revision requires Associated Exempts, militia members between the ages of 50 and 60, to cross state borders if necessary. The amount Quakers have to pay for conscientious exemption is raised from £10 to £80. Public school teachers are made exempt if actively hired for a full year. ** Sir John Johnson takes Caughnawaga and Canajoharie. ** Washington has his headquarters at Tappantown for a while. ** The state legislature meets for the first time in Albany. ** Ontario County's population reaches 1,075. ** The Beach family, Connecticut transplants to Otsego, discover a large chest holding three spinning wheels, hidden by fleeing Loyalists.
New York presents its western lands to Congress, which uses them to provide Pennsylvania with a corridor to Lake Erie.
Washington approves plans to build a prison on Pollopel Island in the Hudson. Nothing comes of the plan. ** The Vermont legislature calls for a convention be held at Cambridge the following month, to decide whether parts of New York's Albany County should be united with Vermont.
58 Scots immigrants petition Governor Clinton for permission to return to Scotland. He refuses permission.
A Ryegate general meeting decides to begin the liquidation of the Scots American Company's holdings.
Rochambeau breaks camp at Newport, Rhode Island, and sets out to join Washington in White Plains.
Congress orders New York State to relinquish her claims to present-day Vermont.
Washington leads Clinton to believe that New York City will be attacked, then moves toward Philadelphia and later to Virginia.
A second French fleet arrives off the Chesapeake. Admiral Graves takes his fleet toward New York.
Cornwallis and his 17,000 troops surrender at Yorktown, Virginia.
Washington wants to attack New York, but the French want to leave American waters.
New York public records are unloaded from the British ship Duchess of Gordon, where they had been placed for safekeeping in December of 1775, at New York City. Many of them are badly damaged.
Cornplanter, Red Jacket and Handsome Lake help Johnson massacre Mohawk Valley settlers. ** John Lansing is elected to the state assembly. ** Lawyer George Hosmer is born to Avon doctor and judge Timothy Hosmer and his wife. ** Unclaimed military lands and land between Seneca and Cayuga lakes fall under a survey grid plan of seven square -mile townships and 500 acre plots.
Merchant and veteran Nathaniel Rochester moves to Hagerstown, Maryland, where he sets up a nail factory, a flour mill and a ropewalk.
Scots captain Charles Williamson sells his commission and travels to America, with letters of introduction to General Cornwallis. He's captured at sea by the Yankee ship Marquis of Salem and spends the rest of the war living with the family of Ebenezer Newell at Roxbury, Massachusetts. He will marry the daughter Abigail Newell.
Rochester tinsmith and village treasurer Ebenezer Watts, Jr., is born in Boston, Massachusetts.
Early Connewango settler Benjamin Darling is born in Windsor, Vermont.
The Columbia County town of Hillsdale is formed from Claverack.
George Washington establishes his headquarters at Newburgh.
The 4th Massachusetts Regiment of Foot, with Private Shurtleff (a disguised Deborah Sampson), leaves Worcester, Massachusetts, to march to West Point, New York. ** A party of British and Indians arrive at Chautauqua Lake to build a dam across the outlet, create a flood and sweep down the Alleghany River to attack Fort Pitt.
The force on Chautauqua Lake leaves without attempting their attack. ** The New Military Tract is formed from Indian lands, to award to Revolutionary War veterans.
In a double wedding New York lawyer Aaron Burr marries widow Theodosia Bartow Prevost at the Hermitage in Paramus, New Jersey, as her half-sister Catherine de Visme marries British-born doctor Joseph Browne.
Retreating British troops destroy Fort Number 8 at Fordham, the Bronx.
Congress accepts New York State's western lands.
Martin Van Buren is born in Kinderhook, to Abraham and Maria Hoes Van Buren, becoming the first president born in the United States.
When wells run dry Hessian soldiers dig forty-foot holes in an unsuccessful attempt to find water. ** State senator Myndert Van Schaick is born.
Ebenezer "Indian" Allan, former lieutenant in the British Indian Department under Sir John Johnson, leads a raiding party into Sussex County, New Jersey. He retreats to Gardeau Flats, on the Genesee River near Mount Morris, for the winter and is assigned to watch the movements of the Seneca and the settlers. ** The approximate date Charles Willson Peale paints financier Robert Morris's portrait. ** A third revision is made to the 1778 Militia Act. Quakers are required to pay £10 for exemption from all military service. Gaolers are once again made exempt. ** Otsego County landholder John Morton dies of apoplexy one week after his New Jersey home is plundered by thieves. ** Hudson Valley aristocrat Stephen Van Rensselaer graduates from Harvard. ** George Washington visits Schenectady, worships at the First Reformed Church.
Officers at Newburgh petition Congress for back pay.
General William Alexander, Lord Stirling, dies in Albany.
The New York legislature passes an act to aid those wishing to settle in central New York.
Anonymous U. S. officers issue the Newburgh Addresses, threatening to mutiny if they don't begin receiving back pay.
Washington forbids meetings of discontented officers at Newburgh.
The officers reassert the validity of their claims. Washington condemns the tone of the Newburgh Addresses.
Washington, recognizing the validity of their arguments, urges dissatisfied army officers to trust in Congress to see that they are paid.
General Greene expresses the fear that discontent may spread to southern officers.
Congress votes officer compensation.
Washington advises the Newburgh officers of Congress' favorable decision.
Washington Irving is born in New York City to merchant Deacon William Irving and Sarah Sanders Irving.
General Jedediah Huntington recommends a military academy at West Point.
British general Sir Guy Carleton requests Congress' aid in evacuating New York City.
Congress appoints three commissioners to aid Carleton.
7,000 Loyalists leave New York City for Canada and Europe.
The first British prisoners are released, in New York City.
Commissioned army officers, including general Henry Knox, organize the Society of Cincinnati, at Newburgh.
A skirmish between British and U. S. ships in New York Harbor is narrowly averted.
Washington disbands his army, at Newburgh.
New York City museum owner Gardner Baker marries Mary Wrighton.
The British 7th Regiment stages a ceremonial review in New York City.
Major Benjamin Mooers and seven associates settle at Point au Roche on Lake Champlain. The site will become the Clinton County town of Beekmantown.
The deadline for Loyalists to receive permission to evacuate New York.
Great Britain and the U. S. sign the peace treaty in Paris. Great Britain signs a peace treaty with France and Spain, at Versailles, ceding Florida to Spain. Spain returns the Bahamas to England. France returns Minorca and Montserrat, in the Leeward Islands, to Great Britain, which also receives Saint Kitts-Nevis. The northern boundary of New York State is confirmed as the 45th parallel. Great Lakes boundary lines are set. Great Britain cedes most of the Alabama and Wisconsin areas to the United States. Britain and the U. S. receive navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Visiting surveyor Robert Lettis Hooper, Jr. writes to Philadelphia acquaintance James Wilson from Albany, describing the land hunger and high amounts of speculation in the region.
A band of arsonists is discovered trying to torch several New York City buildings.
George Washington asks Congress to limit the West Point garrison to 500 troops.
Governor George Clinton expresses impatience with delays in the final treaty.
The Peggy sails out of Staten Island for Nova Scotia, with many ex-slaves aboard. ** Twenty-year-old John Jacob Astor embarks from London on the (North) Carolina for New York with a consignment of his company's flutes.
Washington announces the formal discharge of enlisted men at Newburgh. ** Eleanor Lytle is reunited with her parents Sarah and John at Oswaya.
The British complete their withdrawal from northern Manhattan.
Washington meets with General Carleton to finalize New York evacuation plans.
The final regiments of the British army leave New York. In the future the day will be celebrated as Evacuation Day. George Washington enters the city on horseback along with governor George Clinton and others. Thirteen guns are fired as the rebel flag is raised. The day concludes with a public dinner at Fraunces Tavern.
A small, loud earthquake measuring the equivalent of 5.3 on today's Richter Scale strikes the area around Morris County, New Jersey, and is felt as far away as New York City.
The British arrest Ebenezer "Indian" Allen, imprisoning him first at Fort Niagara, then at Montréal and Kingston.
A fireworks display is held in New York City.
The New York Gazetteer begins publication.
Washington bids farewell to his officers at Fraunces Tavern in New York City, leaves for Mt. Vernon. ** The British evacuate Long Island and Staten Island.
Andrew Brock becomes assessor for Ryegate. Whitelaw is named deputy to Vermont's surveyor general and quits his post as Ryegate's assessor. ** Quaker merchants found the town of Hudson. ** The town of Veedersburg (Amsterdam) is founded. ** Future Syracuse pioneer Comfort Tyler becomes a surveyor and schoolteacher at Caughnawego, on the Mohawk. ** Ebenezer "Indian" Allen carries messages between the Iroquois and British prisoner Rev. Joseph Bull, a Moravian missionary held in Philadelphia, fostering a peace plan. Allen moves from Gardeau Flats along the Genesee River to nearby Mount Morris, where he opens a trading post. ** Horticulturist Alexander Walsh is born. ** General Washington visits Albany, is given freedom of the city. ** The Indian Committee of the Continental Congress urges that the tribes surrender part of their lands to the U. S. as part of a final peace agreement. The New York Assembly advocates expelling all Iroquois tribes that sided with the British, and moving the Oneidas and Tuscaroras to then-vacated Seneca lands in the western part of the state. ** Whig settlers begin returning to Otsego County. Traveler Richard Smith passes Cokhouse, on the upper Delaware, reports that the new white settlers there are inferior to Indians. ** Peter Schuyler constructs a bridle path from his estate on the Hudson to the Saratoga springs. ** George Washington attempts to purchase the Saratoga springs.
New York and Massachusetts appoint commissions to settle the final boundary between them, but no consensus is reached. ** Qualifications for veterans of the Revolution for the acquisition of lands in the New Military Tract are established. They range from 500 acres for a private to 5,500 acres for a major general.
As many as 32,000 may have fled the U. S. by this date, a third New Yorkers.
The approximate date New York City's Hardenbrook family announces they will be selling the Tea Water Pump property by April.
The city becomes the capital of New York State. Colonial public records will be moved here from Poughkeepsie.
The (North) Carolina arrives in Chesapeake Bay from England, becomes frozen in the ice. Eventually some passengers walk ashore across the ice. ** New York City passes a fire prevention law. Water carriers are not mentioned in the legislation, rendering it useless.
The Empress of China sails from New York City with a cargo of ginseng, seeking to open trade with China. The cargo will sell for $30,727.
John Jacob Astor gives in and walks ashore from the (North) Carolina. He sets out for New York overland.
The Bank of New York is organized, the first bank incorporated in the state.
The Hardenbrooks fail to find a buyer as they had originally planned.
The name of Tryon County is changed to Montgomery County. It's divided into five districts - Canajoharie, German Flats, Kingsland, Mohawk and Palatine. ** Charlotte County is renamed Washington County.
The state legislature passes An Act to Provide for the Incorporation of Religious Societies. ** The legislature passes a bill authorizing £200 for repairs to the Kings County courthouse/jail in Flatbush, Brooklyn, which was damaged by the British.
The southern part of Westchester County is taxed £2,000 to pay expenses of the Revolution.
The state creates Commissioners of the Land Office to control bounty lands transactions resulting from the Revolution.
New York City butcher Henry Astor marries Dorothea Pessenger, daughter of a Fly Marker meat seller.
The Bank of New York opens, in New York City.
The approximate date John Jacob Astor crosses over by ferry from New Jersey to Manhattan.
Rochester merchant Silas O. Smith is born in New Marlboro, Massachusetts.
Christopher Colles returns to New York City, claiming £450 from the common council for work on the water supply system. He will receive £300 in about two-and-a-half years.
Albany's Lutheran church is reorganized.
John Jacob Astor advertises German flutes in the New York Packet.
A group of property lots between the Tea Pump and the Collect Pond is advertised for sale. ** Lieutenant Ebenezer "Indian" Allen, freed by the British, is dismissed on half pay from their Indian Department.
Dr. John Henry Livingston is appointed professor of theology by the Dutch Reformed Church Synod, establishing the first theological seminary in America, in New York City.
The Six Nations of the Iroquois sign the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (Rome), surrender all
claims to the Northwest territory in exchange for protection of an Indian zone in western and central New York, western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio, from whites. To help protect local Indian lands the state constitution will forbid the sale of their lands to individuals.
Rochester botanist, minister and educator Chester Dewey is born in Sheffield, Massachusetts.
The state legislature, meeting in New York City, hears a plan by Christopher Colles for improving Mohawk River navigation. He intends to bypass the Cohoes Falls with a 4 1/2 mile-long canal with 20 locks. Nothing comes of the plan.
Griffith Evans, traveling along the Susquehanna River, visits Otsego Lake, is impressed.
North Tarrytown is incorporated as a village within the Town of Mount Pleasant.
Lawyer James Duane, just out of Congress, is appointed mayor for each of the next five one-year terms. ** Christopher Colles petitions the city council for £600, for himself and contractors, for the reservoir, well and pumping engine for his waterworks. ** The council reinstates street cleaning regulations from before the war and appoints three commissioners to oversee compliance, but the laws prove insufficient. ** Authorities appoint a committee to lay out streets around the Collect Pond.
The legislature moves to New York City. ** The University of the State of New York is formed. ** A Mrs. Farmer, grand-daughter of Dutch governor Jacob Leisler, donates portraits of Christopher Columbus, to be hung in Albany's State House. ** American Revolution heroine Sybil Ludington marries a lawyer and moves from Fredericksberg to Unadilla. ** Simeon De Witt is named State Engineer and Surveyor. ** Future governor Enos Thompson Throop is born in Johnstown to George B. and Abiah Throop. ** Benjamin Keyes purchases land from Oliver Phelps that will soon become East Bloomfield. ** The Long Island town of North Hempstead is taken off Hempstead. ** The state legislature fines Long Island for slacking off during the American Revolution. ** The township size in Jessup's Patent and in unappropriated state lands is reduced from 7 square miles to 6. Lot size remains at 500 acres. ** "Mother" Ann Lee, founder of the Shakers, dies at the Watervliet colony, in her late forties. ** A commission is put into place to obtain title to Indian lands. ** Connecticut resident Hugh White settles on the Mohawk River at Sedaghquate (the village of Whitesboro in the future Oneida County Town of Whitestown). He's the first European settler in the whole territory between German Flats and the Niagara frontier. ** New England squatters begin moving into the Otsego area this year and next. ** The Beach family, Connecticut transplants to Otsego, discover a large chest holding three spinning wheels, hidden by fleeing Loyalists. ** French diplomat François Barbé de Marbois begins traveling through the U. S., spending the next five years exploring the new nation, with an emphasis on the Iroquois.
Nathaniel Rochester and Thomas Hart begin a flour milling business at Hagerstown.
The state petitions Congress to resolve their land dispute with New York State.
@2005 David Minor / Eagles Byte