The Treaty of Hartford divides Long Island between the Dutch and the English and allows the Dutch to keep their Hartford lands.
Peter Stuyvesant's Provincial Secretary Cornelius van Tienhoven replies to last year's remonstrances to the States-General, denying the charges on his chief's behalf.
Immigrant Jan Aertsen Vanderbilt arrives from der Bilt, Holland. ** A burgher form of government is instituted. ** The Jan Jansson map of New Amsterdam, originally dated by historians at 1655, will be re-dated to this year in the late 1990s, by Jan van Bracht and Günter Schilder.
The approximate date the remaining Neutral Indians on the Niagara frontier are captured and adopted by the Seneca.
The Connecticut General Court summons Maidstone (East Hampton), Long Island, settler Ralph Dayton to appear before it to register the colony and receive new laws for its governance. All settlers will fence their property, load guns for shooting wolves only outside a one-mile perimeter from the village, and keep their dogs confined when the animal's in heat.
Maidstone receives a receipt for its grant from Connecticut.
Maidstone assigns each householder a strip of land behind his home for his private use, apart from common lands and woodland.
Maidstone decides that when cattle break through fences and cause harm the animal shall be marked by a piece of wood on its horns.
Maidstone agrees to pay the Reverend Thomas James, its first minister, £45 a year, tax free land, and the first grain ground every Monday.
Maidstone's General Court calls for a three-man committee to officiate for the coming year, instructs Daniel Turner to find a home with a local family or leave the area, and gives homeowners six weeks to acquire a ladder capable of reaching the top of any thatched roof.
Maidstone establishes a watch for beached whales, places John Mulford in charge. Provision is made to arm each adult male.
Maidstone residents make plans to build a meeting house, agreeing that in the meantime Thomas Baker will be paid 18 pence for each time meetings are held at his house.
Peter Stuyvesant receives the deed for a bouwerie (farm) previously belonging to Wouter Von Twiller. ** The approximate date Jan Jansson's manuscript map of Belgii Novi (New Netherlands) is created. It has since disappeared.
Peter Stuyvesant has squatter Brandt Van Schlectenhorst jailed for claiming land awarded by Governor Kieft to Cornelius Anthonisz Van Schlick. The daughter of one of Van Schelctenhorst's tenant farmers discovers a heavy stone that probably contains silver, but she's killed in a mudslide and the stone is never found.
New Netherland director general Pieter Stuyvesant establishes the village of Beverwyck (Albany), the second municipality in the future New York State, after Breuckelen (Brooklyn).
Maidstone arranges for laying out further lots on the "East plaine" and confirms the claims of Ralph Daiton, William Edwards, and Thomas Osborne, Sr.
Maidstone orders the platting of town lots on the plain, with provision for a road to the village of Wainscott.
Maidstone orders every landowner with half a dozen cows to provide a bull as well; six pence in stud fees will be paid for every cow impregnated, for the rest of the year.
Maidstone's General Court orders that the Accabonacc meadows be divided into three parts to facilitate the harvesting of salt hay. Roads are ordered into the northwest meadows, with 30 acres of hay left uncut for the time being.
Maidstone requires property owners to mark their boundaries, with a fine of 2s 6d for every lot not marked.
Maidstone encourages those with grievances to let them be publicly known.
Maidstone's General Court rules that each man shall vote on each debated issue by show of hand or be fined 6d.
Maidstone appoints Thomas Talmage town whale watcher for the year.
Governor Peter Stuyvesant charters Flatbush, on Long Island, and issues a patent for the Long Island village of Newtown, previously known as Middleburg. ** Englishman William Hallet, buys 1,500 acres on Long Island along the East River from Stuyvesant. The Indians are appeased with a blanket, beads, 7 coats, and 4 kettles. The community becomes Hallets Cove (later Astoria). ** The first school is opened, meeting at the Stadt-Huys.
Maidstone orders that half the townspeople be sufficiently armed each Lords Day, subject to a 12d fine, and to bring their arms to town on one day's notice.
Peter Stuyvesant incorporates the city of New Amsterdam. ** East Hampton decides to invite Southold weaver "Goodman" Morgan to relocate, promising him £5 and free land.
Maidstone bans selling provisions to Indians during harvest time. Any doing so will be fined 6d for each pound of bread or quart of meal.
Maidstone, fearing plots by the Dutch in New Amsterdam, forbids Indians to enter town, especially when armed.
Maidstone rules that the watch will arrive at dusk; if any man fails to show up a replacement will be hired at the delinquent's expense. Also shot and powder will be ordered from Connecticut, to be paid for by butter or cheese at Clarke's home, at Michaelmas.
Maidstone decides that no citizen shall live away from town without letting three others know the details of his absence. A fine of 40 shillings shall be leveled for each day's unexplained absence.
Maidstone authorizes a highway west to Georgica.
William Edwards of Maidstone sues a Mrs. Price for accusing his wife of lying. Thomas Baker testifies that Mrs. Edwards has blamed her husband for bringing her to a godless place without ministers or magistrates. Edwards drops the suit.
Maidstone orders a watering pond to be dug at a spring east of the village, by all those owning cattle. Ralph Dayton and Thomas Baker are named as overseers of the project.
Word arrives in the colonies that England and Holland have signed a peace treaty.
Maidstone calls for the town's cattle to be driven out to Wainscott each day, with Thomas Osborne having the first turn, then rotating among the owners.
Two meadows outside of Maidstone, one at Accabonac and one at Northwest, are apportioned out to the townspeople.
Maidstone agrees to give "Goodman" Davis 7 1/2 acres of land after he brings in two more crops on the plain east of the village.
The Iroquois sign a general peace with the French at Montréal.
Maidstone votes to abide by the laws of Connecticut.
Representatives from four Dutch and four English towns meet in New Amsterdam, to protest against New Netherland's arbitrary government.
Stuyvesant convenes the colony's first representative assembly, defies the opinions of "a few ignorant subjects".
New York acquires a city council and a town government, in protest to Stuyvesant's rule. The Dutch West Indies Company's tavern becomes the city hall. The colony builds a wall across the island to the north, as a protection against English colonies (after Cromwell declares war against the Dutch Republic) and Indians, from that direction. ** Merchant Jacob Krip is appointed first city clerk of New Amsterdam. ** Immigrant builder Frederick Philipse arrives.
Jesuit missionary Father Le Moyne comes to Onondaga with a party of Huron and Onondaga chiefs, as an envoy to ratify the peace treaty with the French. ** English settlers from Hempstead are colonizing the Hicksville, Jericho, Oyster Bay and Westbury areas of Long Island.
The Cat Nation (Eries) send 30 ambassadors to New York's Senecas to renew peace. An Erie accidentally kills a Seneca during a lacrosse game. The Senecas kill 25 of the ambassadors; 5 escape. The Erie burn a Seneca village. They ambush the rear guard of a Iroquois war party, killing 80 of the Indians. Erie scouts capture the Iroquois leader Annencraos, murder him. The Iroquois will raise 1800 warriors, surround the Erie fortress of Rique (Rigue), overcome 3-4,000 warriors and take the fort.
The directors of the East India Company write to governor Pieter Stuyvesant, informing him of a New Amsterdam city seal to be forwarded.
Maidstone moves the house next to Joshua Garlicke's off the Common and converts it to a prison.
New Amsterdam settler Teunis Tomasen sues Michael Paulisen for payment on a chimney Thomasen had built for Paulisen. Tomasen wins his suit. ** Several male residents of Maidstone are accused of sexual self gratification.
The total of Maidstone men changed rises to four.
New England recruits setting out to attack New Amsterdam learn that the English and the Dutch have made peace.
Three of the four accused in Maidstone, servant Daniel Fairfield, a servant of Joshua Garlicke, and John Davis, are whipped, while Fairfield is pilloried as well. The fate of the fourth man, John Hand, Jr., whose father is on the investigating committee, is unrecorded.
Maidstone agrees to a request from Connecticut to assist England against the Dutch.
Manhattan's Dominies Hook, on the North (Hudson) River between Duane and Canal streets, is acquired by ground brief from Peter Stuyvesant.
The approximate date (possibly the 18th) the Dutch ship Peartree sails from Holland with the New Amsterdam city seal.
Jacob Barsimon becomes the first Jew to settle in the city.
23 Sephardic Jews, refugees from Brazil, arrive in New Amsterdam aboard the French armed vessel St. Charles. The ship's captain claims he's owed 1600 guilders for the trip.
Maidstone votes to adopt a version of the Connecticut constitution.
Maidstone signs a Covenant, incorporating the town on religious principles in the Connecticut manner. 40 inhabitants sign.
Maidstone passe legislation placing Lion Gardiner in charge of whale watchers, calling for a road across the swamp to the plain, requiring each man to initial the corners of his property, and placing Thomas Baker in charge of the Ordinary (tavern).
Stuyvesant presents the city seal and accompanying signet to burgomeister Martin Crigier.
Maidstone votes to send a delegation to Connecticut next month to discuss a merger.
The Dutch West India Company rules that Jews be allowed to remain in New Amsterdam.
Maidstone severely limits the amount of alcohol that can be sold or given to an Indian.
Maidstone apportions meadow lands around Hook Pond to the Reverend Thomas James, Lion Gardiner, Ananias Conklin, Thomas Chatfield and William Hedges.
The Dutch from New Amsterdam, under Peter Stuyvesant and a force of 317 men oust the Swedish settlers in the Delaware River Valley, capturing Fort Christina and Fort Casimir from New Sweden governor Rysingh.
Maidstone elects Thomas Baker, Lion Gardiner, and John Mulford as town representatives for the coming year.
Mulford, Gardiner and Baker write to Connecticut governor Thomas Welles, to support their attempt to banish accused thief Arthur Chandler, when spring comes.
The city is surveyed and its streets are straightened. ** Several thousand Hudson River area Indians go on a three-day rampage in the city, as well as on Staten Island and in New Jersey. Over a hundred Dutch settlers are killed. More than 150 are kidnapped. ** Lady Deborah Moody is allowed to vote in town meeting. ** Stuyvesant denies Jews the right to serve in the military. ** Orphans and other poor children arrive from the Netherlands, in an effort to boost population. ** Brooklyn area Indians, trusting the Dutch to defend them, are completely wiped out by Mohawk Indians for failing to pay tribute. ** The approximate date Claes Janszoon Visscher publishes a map of New Netherland, correcting the 1650 map (until 1988 assumed to be dated 1651) by Jan Jansson.
The approximate date the Seneca establish a town in an area known as the Dann-Mack site. today in Mendon township, probably abandoning the site by 1670 and moving on to found Totiakton (Rochester Junction). ** The approximate date a French settlement in the future Onondaga County area is abandoned. ** Exiled Scot Alexander Lindsay Glen secures a patent to land north of the Mohawk River, opposite Schenectady. ** Maidstone starts a school in Samuel Parson's home.
Maidstone (East Hampton) promulgates laws against striking anyone, or bearing false witness. Fines are set, with medical expenses levied against the attacker.
The Dutch States General ratifies its 1650 agreement with the United Colonies, changing the boundary between the two to a line drawn south from Oyster Bay.
Maidstone sends Thomas Baker, John Hand and Lion Gardiner to Hartford, to form a union with the Connecticut colony. Later in the month Hartford takes Maidstone under its protection, placing a local deputy in the General Court.
The cornerstone is laid for the first church in Beverwyck (Albany) by the congregation of the Reformed Dutch church.
Mohawk Indians request that the Dutch not sell rum to their people.
Maidstone announces fines for anyone selected Constable, Secretary or Townsman who refuses to serve.
Maidstone restricts Indian activity, ruling against renting them land, or allowing wigwams to be set up in town without permission. They are not allowed to travel through town on the Sabbath.
Governor Pieter Stuyvesant has the first map of the city made and sent to the Netherlands. He grants the future Jamaica land on Long Island to the English. The West India Trading Company complains that the streets are too broad. The first census is also made. It shows 120 houses and about 1,000 inhabitants. ** Brewer Michiel Jansen sinks a well in Bevers Graacht and opens a tavern, after his previous business in Pavonia (today's Jersey City, New Jersey) was burned by Indians last year. ** A market stand is built at Broadway and Battery Place near the northeast corner of the fort.
A party of 50 French arrive at Onondaga Lake, where they help six Jesuits establish a mission. ** The last 600 Erie surrender to the Iroquois. ** Fort Orange (Albany) trappers take 30,000 beaver pelts.
A pulpit is built that will end up in Albany, New York's 1798 First Dutch Reformed Church.
Maidstone (East Hampton) forbids the planting of Indian corn within eight feet of any outer fence, and the forming of any cornstack or haystsack on that same ground.
Maidstone shifts the General Court sfrom the first three days of April to the first three of March.
Stuyvesant's party reorganizes Fort Casimir as New Amstel.
Maidstone agrees to pay the Reverend Thomas James's £50 salary in redeemable merchndise credit.
Early Maidstone settler Ananias Conklin dies.
Robert Bond and William Mulford inventory Conklin's estate.
Maidstone sets fines for anyone named constable or secretary who refuses to serve without good cause.
Maidstone rules that matters to be brought before the town council by outsiders should always be done through a resident of the town.
After Quaker missionaries arrive from England and Henry Townshend of Flushing is fined by the Dutch under a new law, for entertaing Quakers, his neighbors rally, sign the Flushing Remonstrance, declaring for freedom of religion. They will soon bow to pressure and withdraw their support for Townshend.
The approximate date of construction of Peter Stuyvesant's mansion, Whitehall, in lower Manhattan. ** Thatched roofs are prohibited, as a fire safety measure. ** The approximate year Stone Street is built, between Broad Street and Hanover Square. ** The burgomasters order that citizens must sweep in front of their homes and bring their garbage to five official areas for disposal. The orders are mostly ignored until fines are levied for dumping in the canal ditch. ** Following the mother country's much earlier example, the right of the burgher class (Burgher-recht) to engage in professions or crafts, is introduced in the city.
Father Pierre-Joseph-Marie Chaumonot visits the Senecas at Boughton Hill (Ganagarro).
Stuyvesant bans tennis during church service hours and also prohibits "pulling the goose."
In Maidstone Lion Gardiner's daughter Elizabeth Gardiner Howell falls ill, accuses Joshua Garlicke's wife of being a witch and cursing her. When Elizabeth dies an investigation is called for.
The court at Maidstone hears testimony against Goody Garlicke from Samuel Pasons, William Russell and Elizabeth's husband Arthur.
Father, Lion Gardiner, and husband, Arthur Howell, agree that the latter will become legal guardian for Elizabeth Gardiner Howell's infant daughter, including portions of Elizabeth's state received from the Gardiners.
Elizabeth's nurse Goody Howell, and her mother, both make depositions before John Mulford, John Hand and Thomas Baker. Both women testify that Elizabeth told them Goody Garlicke was tormenting her.
Testimony continues. Goody Brookes says Mrs. Gardiner told her Elizabeth was bewitched by a woman. Goody Burdsill testifies that she heard Goody Davis's infant died because she was cursed by Goody Garlicke. Goodman Vaile and his wife refute this, claim Davis gave her child to an Indian woman to nurse and it died of starvation.
Stuyvesant establishes the town of Nieuw Haarlem, in the northern half of Manhattan.
Goody Burdsill gives further testimony, says she heard Mrs. Howell accuse Goody Garlike of 'jear'ing her.
The Maidstone council assigns Thomas Baker and John Hand to travel to Connecticut on government matters, escorting Goody Garlicke there for trial.
Maidstone places itself under the Connecticut government.
The Connecticut Court exonerates Goody Garlicke, but commends Maidstone authorities for their diligence.
Maidstone signs a treaty with Montauketts chief Wyandanch, negotiating pasturage at Montauk for seven years and first refusal if the land is ever sold.
New Amsterdam gets its first police force - the Ratelwacht (Burgher Guard).
Chief Wyandanch agrees to convey half of the whales washed up on the beach to minister Thomas James and the other half to Wyandanch's friend Lion Gardiner, paying only what they deem fair for any whales after the first one.
Maidstone extends its eastern boundary.
The council bans kolven, a forerunner of golf. ** The council outlaws privies with street level outlets. The order is pretty much ignored. ** Failing to sustain a ban on loose pigs in the street the council orders them at least ringed through the nose, to make them easier to catch. ** The city considers digging a public well north of the wall; nothing is done. ** Dutch immigrant Gerritt Remmersen arrives in Amersfoort (Gravesend, Brooklyn) Long Island.
Settlers from Onondaga Lake, fearing an imminent Indian attack, flee, pausing to bury gold and cannon on Stowell (Treasure) Island, in the Oswego River. ** Settler Alexander Lindsay Glen erects a mansion on the bank of the Mohawk opposite Schenectady.
The Iroquois, backed first by the Dutch, then the English, begin nine years of devastating warfare against the French.
Maidstone (also now being referred to as East Hampton) formulates laws regulating taverns, which must be licensed by the town.
Maidstone requires landowners to mark their fences with their initials and to keep their livestock penned up except for grazing times on common land.
The directors of the Dutch West India Company write to Stuyvesant, inquiring about a petition for land and mineral grants in the Catskill Mountains made by Garrit Jansen Kuiper and Abel de Wolfe. Stuyvesant will stall, not supplying the information.
Wyandanch gifts Lion Gardiner with a patch of land between Huntington and Seatacut, for his aid in conflict with the Naragansetts in 1653. The sachem dies later this summer, reportedly poisoned.
Unrest among the Esopus Indians compels the Fort Orange (Albany) authorities to call for the building of a stockade around the settlement. It's left open on the Hudson River side at first but soon all residents living along the river are ordered to erect new fences the same height as the stockade, within eight days.
Alexander Carolus Curtius (Cursier) opens a Latin School, the first in the city. ** The city orders 100,000 bricks and 12,000 tiles from Holland. ** More orphans and other poor children arrive from the Netherlands. ** Merchant-poet Jacob Steendam describes Manhattan's waters. ** Willem Gerritsen, his wife Mary, and two sons, Willem and Cornelius, arrive in Amersfoort (Gravesend, Brooklyn) Long Island, from Bermuda. ** The village of New Haarlem is founded at the northern end of Manhattan.
Under 500 Metoac Indians remain on Long Island.
Howell's English Proverbs refers to the wisdom of the men of Gotham.
© 2002, 2003 David Minor / Eagles Byte