The planting of beans and maize begins (highly conjectural).
The approximate date the characters fools of Gotham begin appearing in the mystery plays at Wakefield.
Giovanni da Verrazano, commissioned by France's Francis I, sails from the Madeiras, in la Dauphine, for the New World, probably accompanied by Jacques Cartier.
Verrazano discovers, enters New York bay. He meets a party of natives; relations are amicable.
Verrazano arrives back in France. He writes to his sponsor Francis I, telling of the friendly reception he and his crew received from the Indians around New York bay.
Black Portuguese navigator Estéban Gomez sails up the Hudson River (naming it the Deer River) decides it doesn't lead to China and sails back out again.
French explorer Jacques Cartier hears of curative waters to be found in the future Saratoga Springs area, while exploring the St. Lawrence River. He may also hear of a great falls (Niagara) to the west.
Traditional date the French abandon a small fort at what is now Albany.
The Rochester Family is granted the use of a family coat of arms.
The approximate date the joke book Merie Tales of the mad men of Gotam is published, popularizing the story of a town of shrewd fools which will form the basis for the imaginary name Gotham.
The approximate date the Seneca in the western Finger Lakes begin branching off, migrating both to the northeast and the northwest.
The Huron prophet and philosopher Deganawidah, assisted by Ha-yo-went'-ha (Hiawatha), unites the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga and Seneca tribes into the Iroquois Confederacy.
Population of Algonkin (Algonquin) tribes is about 6,000. ** The approximate total population of Long Island's Metoac tribes is 10,000. A total of 13 tribes live on the island. ** The population of the five nations of the Iroquois is somewhere under 20,000.
Champlain hears of a great waterfall (Niagara) at the western end of Lake Ontario.
King Henry of Navarre grants a favorite all North American lands north of the 40th parallel (New France).
Charters for the London Company and the Virginia Company of Plymouth (Council for New England) are issued by James I, to Ferdinando Gorges and John Popham, to settle the American coast between Cape Fear and mid-Maine. This is the area Henry of Navarre, the French king, had claimed two years previously. The colonies of Virginia and New England are to remain 100 miles apart. The region in between can only be colonized if no other European nation lays claim to it.
Henry Hudson departs from Amsterdam in his three-masted Dutch carrack the Half Moon .
Hudson sails from Texel Island.
When the Half Moon becomes blocked by ice and fog the crew becomes mutinous. Hudson turns west and travels along the coast of Norway.
A storm strikes the Half Moon about midpoint between Scotland and Nova Scotia. The ship's foremast is lost.
Hudson reaches Maine, sets out down the coast from Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
The Half Moon nears today's Halifax, Nova Scotia.
The explorers sight land, but heavy fog obscures the view
Possible date Samuel de Champlain enters the lake that will bear his name.
Champlain, accompanied by two other Frenchmen, including his teen-aged servant Etienne Brulé, and 60 Algonquins and Hurons, defeats a band of Iroquois Indians near the future Ticonderoga, beginning a long period of French/Iroquois enmity.
Hudson anchors the Half Moon in the lower end of New York harbor. He explores the area for the next ten days.
Hudson enters the Narrows.
Hudson anchors off southwestern Brooklyn, names the bay Gravesend. Indians in canoes come out to see the Half Moon.
Hudson sends a party ashore on Long Island, where they meet with friendly natives and invite them for a visit aboard to trade.
Hudson sends a small crew ashore on Long Island to explore. On their return to the ship hey are attacked by two canoes full of natives. Crewman John Colman is killed, two others injured. The survivors can't find the Half Moon in the dark. Colman becomes the first recorded victim of violence in the area of the future New York City.
Colman is buried near today's Coney Island. Hudson takes two hostages.
Hudson anchors in the Bay.
Hudson crosses upper New York Bay, purchases oysters and beans from the natives on Manhattan Island, and heads north into the Hudson River.
Henry Hudson anchors his Half Moon off the Yonkers area.
Hudson anchors off the West Point area. Two Indian hostages escape.
Hudson arrives in the Kingston area.
Hudson arrives in the Hudson area.
Hudson arrives in the Castleton area.
Hudson arrives in the Albany area.
Hudson leaves the Albany area.
The Half Moon runs aground in the Castleton area.
The Half Moon is attacked by Indians in Haverstraw Bay. The crew kills two.
Hudson sails for England.
The Dutch summon Henry Hudson to report but the English will not let him comply.
The approximate date Etienne Brulé, sent west by Champlain with furs traded from the Huron, passes through the Genesee River area and is captured by Senecas and tortured, saved only when a thunderstorm frightens them and they release him. He winters over in western Ontario. ** A Dutch ship belonging to private merchant-traders travels up the Hudson River to trade for furs with the Mahicans.
The approximate date Peter Stuyvesant is born in Peperga.
Former Dutch lawyer Adrian Block explores Manhattan Island in the ship Tiger . He returns to Europe with a cargo of furs and two kidnaped Indians, who he names Orson and Valentine.
Samuel de Champlain, working from notes made by his scout Etienne Brule, makes the first map of Lake Ontario, showing the Genesee River.
Dutch merchants send the ship Fortuyn, captained by German explorer Hendrick Christaensen (Christiaenszoon, Christiaensen, Corstiaensen), and the Tyger, commanded by Adriaen Block, along with three other vessels, to the Mauritius (Hudson) River.
The Iroquois sign the Treaty of Taagonshi with the Dutch, agreeing to treat each other as brothers. The Two Row wampum belt is made to symbolize the pact.
Christaensen and Block arrive off Manhattan. Block will sail along Long Island Sound, collecting and trading. Christaensen will sail up the Hudson to the Albany area, where he builds Fort Nassau, then returns downriver, erecting a few huts on Manhattan and preparing to winter over.
English captain Samuel Argall stops at Manhattan Island, forces Christaensen to lower the Dutch flag and raise the English one. ** Block returns to Manhattan Island in the Tyger, which is destroyed in a fire off the southern tip. He and Hendrick Christaensen establish a Dutch fur-trading post on Manhattan Island. Over the coming winter they build the 42-foot ship Onrust (Restless). They also complete "A Figurative Map on Vellum" this year.
The Netherland states of Holland and West Vriesland make a joint resolution to give four-voyage monopolies (rather than the six requested) to those discovering new rivers and other trading sites in the New World.
The Ordinance of 1614 is passed. The Dutch Congress promises a trade monopoly to discoverers of new countries.
Adrian Block and Hendrick Christiaensz return to the Netherlands in the Onrust.
The United New Netherland Company is chartered by the States-General, giving merchants a three-year fur-trading monopoly.
Adrien Block explores the East River and Long Island Sound in the Onrust. He leaves Jan Rodriguez, a Santo Domingo mulatto, behind on Manhattan to trade with the natives, goes on to explore the lower reaches of the Connecticut River. He will prepare a manuscript map.
Block settles Fort Van Nassoueen (Nassau, later Fort Orange, then Albany) on Castle Island. ** The Dutch build a trading post at Flatbush, in the future Ulster County.
Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen Mey sails into Delaware and New York bays and names Cape May.
Samuel de Champlain discovers Oneida Lake.
Champlain, accompanying Etienne Brulé, traces the Ottawa River to Lake Huron, becomes the first white to discover the Great Lakes. When he returns to the New York State area he accompanies a band of Hurons on an attack against the Iroquois near Oneida Lake and is wounded. He winters over with the Hurons. Father Joseph Le Caron, of Champlain's party, splits from the others, reaches Lake Huron, independently. Champlain and Le Caron discover Lake Ontario.
Adriaen Block publishes his map of New York Harbor and Long Island.
First-generation-American Samuel Corning is born in Belstone, Devonshire, into a family of ten children.
Fort Nassau (Albany) is destroyed by a flood. ** The charter of the United New Netherland Company expires, beginning a new round of competition.
The charter of United New Netherland Company expires; they are unable to renew it.
After arranging a peace between the Mahicans and the Mohawks, the Dutch rebuild Fort Nassau on the east side of the Hudson. ** Spring floods destroy the trading post on Castle Island, below Albany. ** The Dutch acquire land from the tribes around Albany at the treaty of Tawasentha, signed at Norman's Kill.
The Dutch settle Fort Nassau (later Fort Orange, then Albany) on Castle Island, under the command of navigator Hendrick Christaensz. Christaensz is murdered later in the year while anchored in the Hudson River aboard the Swarte Beer, by Orson, an Indian he'd taken to Holland and back.
Pilgrims arrive in Massachusetts.
© 2004 David Minor / Eagles Byte
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